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From University of Alberta:
Smarter ways to measure intelligence than IQ, says University of Alberta researcher
Measuring a child's IQ is an obsolete way to determine intelligence, and in fact, labels youngsters unfairly, according to a University of Alberta professor.
Building on a theory he began researching almost 20 years ago, Dr. J.P. Das has developed ' rules and tools of intelligence' which point to factors other than IQ (Intelligence Quotient) in measuring how 'smart' a child is.
''A child growing up in the slums or in a household with no literacy or books could be very street-smart, yet not have the school learning required for the traditional measurement of IQ,'' says Das, Professor Emeritus in educational psychology at the University of Alberta.
Das presented his Rules and Tools of Intelligence: How IQ became obsolete in a keynote address at the 28th International Congress of Psychology held in Beijing, China in August, and the system is now being used all over the world, and is being translated into several languages. Using a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Das is currently working with children in an Alberta aboriginal community to explore learning problems.
Das identifies four 'rules of intelligence' that go into information processing. The rules include a belief that intelligence is not fixed, but is influenced by such factors as learning and cultural demands, cognitive abilities, even school attendance, as well as individual ability to process information such as language and face recognition.
The rules guide the research on PASS theory, developed by Das and two colleagues in 1994. PASS (an acronym for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive processing) has shown that intelligence should not be measured alone by school learning and IQ testing, but by information processing that occurs during this learning. ''What goes into intellectual abilities and how a person solves a problem is more important than a score itself,'' said Das.
A system for cognitive assessment based on PASS has been available since 1997, following standardized testing on 3,000 children and teens, and has been adopted by school districts in the United States, including Los Angeles.
IQ testing can stigmatize a child permanently, causing more harm than good, Das said. ''When a child is labelled as gifted, you are happy. But when he is labelled as borderline intelligent, as a parent you think, 'What did I do? I must have committed a sin.'''
Using the PASS rules of intelligence, teachers in the classroom can individualize their program planning for students, Das says. ''Rather than categorizing and labelling, a teacher can explore the different thought process of each child as unique.''
The Statue of Liberty in New Jersey waters outside New York Harbor is sheathed in copper of average thickness 2 mm. The statue is 50 m high and some 80 metric tons of copper was required for its fabrication. It is probable that few projects before or since the Statue’s construction in 1876 – 1885 ever required as much copper. Nonetheless, no historical records have yet been found to indicate positively the source of copper. It has been widely rumored that the copper used in the building of the Statue of Liberty in New Jersey came from Visnes Copper Mines at Karmoy near Stavanger in Norway.
Historical records make no mention of the source of the copper used in the construction of the Statue of Liberty, although a local tradition suggests that the copper came from the French-owned Visnes Mine near Stavanger, Norway. One of the mines that provided high-purity ore to the European metals industry in the late nineteenth century was the Visnes Mine in Norway. This mine was in operation throughout much of the latter half of the nineteenth century, and local tradition has it that copper from the mine was used for the Statue of Liberty. Records show that ore from this mine, refined in France and Belgium, was a significant source of European copper in the late nineteenth century. To investigate further the origin of the statue’s copper, “Bell Laboratories” in New Jesey, USA, have analyzed the samples of copper from the Visnes Mines and from the Statue of Liberty by emission spectrograph. Bell Laboratories concluded that it is highly probable that the copper from the Visnes Mine was used for the Statue of Liberty, and that the metallurgical evidence argues strongly that the copper comes from Norway. In the autumn of 1985, copper from the statue was analyzed and it has now been confirmed that it was indeed extracted at Visnes.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
a. Where the copper came from th