山西十一选五遗漏数据 www.0uur.cn 作为一家新型的大型专业山西十一选五遗漏数据，山西十一选五遗漏数据拥有中国首屈一指的翻译资源。通过3年的积累，已经拥有多达6万名专业注册译者，可以翻译56种语言，42个行业。大量的高素质译者保证我们可以给您提供最熟悉您行并业的专才译者队伍，通过我们卓有成效的管理体系，从而提供一个比同类公司在便捷、高质、价优、可信方面更为出色的山西十一选五遗漏数据。
Bully on the Brain
Feb. 14, 2000 (Boston) -- For the first time, a brain defect that could be at least partly responsible for extremely violent criminal actions and antisocial behaviors of some men has been identified, report researchers from the University of Southern California (USC).
Men with antisocial personality disorder (APD) -- a form of mental illness often seen in serial killers and other violent, aggressive, wildly impulsive, or dangerous people -- had an 11% reduction in a certain type of tissue (gray matter) in the part of the brain known as the prefrontal cortex when compared with either normal men or men with a history of drug or alcohol abuse but no APD.
Researchers have pinpointed the prefrontal cortex as the part of the brain where emotion, arousal, attention, moral conscience, and self-control primarily reside.
The link between extremely violent and antisocial behavior and damage to prefrontal cortex from disease or trauma has been long established. One of the most famous cases was that of a Vermont railroad worker named Phineas Gage, who in 1848 survived and, remarkably, recovered rapidly from a horrific accident in which a heavy iron tamping rod more than three feet in length was driven by an explosion completely through his skull. Following the accident, however, he underwent a dramatic personality change, and began to display many of the traits of APD, including antisocial behavior, use of sexually explicit language, apparent lack of moral conscience, impulsiveness, irritability, aggressiveness, and an inability to focus on work or plan for the future.
Although children are not typically diagnosed with personality disorders until they reach adulthood, according to the American Psychiatric Association, children that exhibit signs similar to APD typically violate rules and show signs of extreme aggression, such as the torture of animals or other people, frequent bullying or threatening, use of weapons that could cause serious injury, lying, sexual aggression, vandalism, and theft. Adults with APD frequently commit criminal acts, get into fights, cheat, show a general disregard for the safety of themselves or others, and show a lack of remorse for their own behavior.
But the findings from the USC study raise legal and ethical questions about whether some violent offenders are completely responsible for their actions, and whether they can or should be treated with specific interventions that could curb impulsive behaviors and dampen their aggressive tendencies so that they no longer present a threat to society at large.
"I don't think anyone would argue that you can treat extreme antisocial behavior by locking people away, but then how would we treat them, and is it possible to prevent such behaviors from occurring in the first place?" asks M. Marsel Mesulam, MD, in an interview with WebMD seeking objective analysis. Mesulam is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago.
"The exciting part would be if this could be a marker to identify children who are at increased risk for this troublesome adult outcome, and if it would have sufficient accuracy to pick up children who are at risk for this condition, because that's a prerequisite for any targeted intervention program," agrees David R. Offord, MD, director of the Centre for Studies of Children at Risk at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario.
If the causes of the underlying problem can be identified, it could allow doctors to design therapies such as drugs or surgery to treat the specific brain defect, combined with other strategies such as psychiatric treatment and behavioral therapy. Such therapies would be likely to be more effective in children, whose brains are more adaptable to change than those of adults, says researcher Adrian Raine, DPhil, professor of psychology at the USC, in an interview with WebMD.
"We have to try to discover what the causes of the prefrontal damage are, and that's what we can't answer at the moment," Raine says. "The deficit could occur from environmental factors, such as birth complications, which could traumatize the brain. We did research a few years ago showing that birth complications predispose to violent offending in adulthood. Perhaps if we gave under-served mothers better prenatal and postnatal health care, we might be in a better position to do something about reducing one of the sources of prefrontal damage."
"Another source of the damage could be very early infant abuse. If you repeatedly shake an infant, you'll lacerate the white nerve fibers connecting the frontal cortex, effectively shutting it off from the rest of the brain and perhaps leading to some neuronal [nerve cell] degeneration. So the question may be, what do we do to prevent early infant abuse?" he says.
Raine tells WebMD that although there is little hope now of curing adults with APD, "we know that in the next 10 years we'll have the first microchip implant to replace the hippocampus [the area of the brain thought to be involved in emotion and memory], and scientists are working on using microchip implants to replace other damaged brain structures. It's not inconceivable, therefore, that within the next 15 to 20 years we might be able to do something about the tissue loss that occurs in these individuals."
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a form of mental illness often seen in serial killers and other violent, aggressive, wildly impulsive, or dangerous people.
Researchers have found that men with APD have an 11% reduction in a type of tissue in the prefrontal cortex -- the area of the brain associated with emotion, arousal, attention, moral conscience, and self-control.
Some suggestions as to what actually causes the damage to this area of the brain include environmental factors, such as complications during birth, or early infant abuse.
芝加哥西北大学精神病学和行为科学教授M. Marsel Mesulam在接受WebMD网采访时就这一问题寻求客观分析的时候说，“我想任何人都不会把将这些人锁起来作为阻止极度反社会行为的方法，那该怎么对待这些人呢，有没有可能把这些行为控制在刚出现的时候呢”？
汉密尔顿McMaster 大学特殊儿童研究中心主任David R. Offord对这一看法表示同意，“这一发现令人激动的地方在于它是一个参量，这个参量可以帮助我们辨认出那些正逐步走向危险，在成人后会产生这一令人棘手地结果的儿童，可以帮助我们准确地发现处于潜伏期儿童”。
Contract 与 Agreement的有无区别
在英语中，合同一般称为Contract，协议一般称为Agreement。何谓“contract”? 1999年中国《合同法》第二条对contract定义为： A contact in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations”。根据这一定义，合同平等主体之间设立的确定民事权利和义务的协议。 ，Steven H. Gifts编著的“Law Dictionary”中将contract 定义为“contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根据这一定义，合同是一种承诺，违反承诺可以得到法律救助，某种意义上法律将履行该承诺看做是一种补偿。 L.B Curzon 在其编撰的字典“A Dictionary of Law”给contract的定义：“Contract is a legally binding agreement”根据这一定义，合同就是有法律约束力的协议。综合起来，有一个相同点，就是“Contract is an agreement”，即可将合同说成是“An agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者说合同说成是“An agreement which is enforceable by law”， 也可以说：Contracts are promises that the law will enforce。 何谓“Agreement”? L.B “A consensus of mind, or evidence of such consensus, in spoke or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”根据这一定义，协议是对已经做或准备做的相关事宜，经过谈判、协商后取得一致意见，以口头或书面形式做出的约定。Black "Law Dictionary"有两个定义。一个是：“A concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain