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开学了 给孩子一个好睡眠

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开学了 给孩子一个好睡眠
Kids and sleep: they need more

Now that school has started, many parents find themselves struggling to shift their kids back to a working routine. As they shave off time for TV and the Internet to make way for schoolwork, parents may want to add extra for that other big contributor to success at school: sleep. Recent research on kids has connected the importance of sleep not only to cognition, but to behavior and mood as well.

Some researchers theorize that the REM, or rapid eye movement, phase of sleep is when the brain produces and consolidates neural networks for memory and cognition. It's a kind of "formatting of the brain," says Ralph Downey, an expert of sleep medicine at Loma Linda University and Children's Hospital in Southern California and a spokesperson for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Before the age of 6, a typical child will require between 12 and 13 hours of sleep per night, says Judith Owens, associate professor of pediatrics at Brown University and a noted expert on childhood sleep disorders. At age 6, 10 to 11 hours are needed. While the amount of sleep necessary drops once kids reach adolescence, Owens notes, "they still need at least nine hours under ideal circumstances."

What if they come up short? A sleep-deprived child's reaction is often different from the low energy and sleepiness experienced by adults. "Reducing the amount of hours a child sleeps manifests itself in the child becoming wired and hyperexcitable--exhibiting behavior similar to children with attention deficit disorder," says David Gozal, director of the pediatric sleep program at the University of Louisville in Kentucky. Kids' emotions may become erratic, says Gozal, and they may be less apt to listen or pay attention. Researchers at the University of Montreal report that a study of young children showed that those who slept significantly fewer hours than the recommended 10 were more hyperactive and impulsive than those who got plenty of shuteye and scored lower on two cognitive skills tests.

"Our results indicate that a modest but chronic reduction of just one hour of sleep nightly in early childhood can affect the child's cognitive performance at school entry," says Dominique Petit, a sleep researcher and coauthor of the study. She thinks there's a critical period in early childhood when the lack of sleep is particularly detrimental to development, even if sleep habits improve later on.

But moving "lights out" earlier can be a big challenge. Mark Goetting, a sleep medicine specialist and medical director of the Sleep Health Center in Portage, Mich., offers some recommendations:

Create positive associations with going to bed. "Often, parents will say to a child, 'You can stay up as long as you're good,' or, 'If you don't do what I say, you're going to bed.' It's not healthy to associate going to bed with punishment," says Goetting. "Parents and children will begin to see bedtime as a power struggle." And, of course, both want to win.

Establish a wind-down period before bed. A routine (like reading stories) can let a child know that he's headed toward bedtime and can help him slow down.

Construct a bedroom environment that promotes sleep. "A bedroom should not be a terribly stimulating place," says Goetting. So move the televisions, bright lights, and toys.

When the kids sleep better, parents may notice a difference in their own quality of life, too. "Parents are definitely better rested themselves--their mood is better, they feel more alert--and are able to function better at home and at work," says Owens. "It really sends a positive ripple through the entire family."(Agencies) 新学期开始了,很多家长正努力地把孩子拉回正轨。在让看电视和上网让位于家庭作业的同时,家长们可能还想为孩子的学习进步再添一大“砝码”——睡眠。近日一项有关儿童的研究发现,睡眠不仅和儿童的认知表现有重要关系,而且会影响他们的行为和情绪。


孩子睡眠不足会怎样呢?孩子在睡眠不足时的反应往往不同于成年人(在缺觉情况下)感到的精力不足与困乏??纤萋芬姿刮笱У亩哐芯恐魅未笪?格扎尔说:“孩子在缺乏睡眠的情况下会变得很亢奋——他们此时的行为表现与多动症儿童类似。” 格扎尔说,(在睡眠不足的情况下),孩子的情绪会变得反复无常,他们往往不听话、注意力也不如平时集中。蒙特利尔大学的研究人员称,一项有关幼童的研究表明,睡眠时间严重低于专家建议的10个小时的儿童比睡眠充足的儿童更加亢奋与冲动,他们在两项认知能力测试中的得分也较低。









  摘要: 大多数活跃的服务器页(ASP)应用依赖串联建立HTML 格式化的数据然后被用户使用。本文对各种创造HTML 数据流的方法进行了比较,其中有一些在特定的情况下有更好的性能。asp 和Visual Basic编程设计的方法被合理采用了。

绪论 开发者编写ASP 页,其实是在创造一串格式化正文通过ASP提供给网络客户。你能使用多中不同的方法创造该正文,但是你所选择的方法网络应用的性能和可测量性有很大影响。在帮助用户协调他们Web 应用性能的许多场合中,我已经发现主要的获胜因素是那个改变HTML数据流的方式。在本文,我将展示一些普通的技术并且测试他们对简单的asp页的性能的影响。

asp 设计 很多asp开发者已经遵循好的软件设计原则并且??榛堑拇?。这种设计通常采取用某一页的部分离散的功能??樽槌尚乱车男问?。线性输出由这些功能实现,通常是HTML代码表,然后能通过各种各样结合形式形成完整的一页。一些开发者已经更深入一步研究并且把这些HTML函数作为Visual Basic COM的组成部分,希望受益于额外的编译代码提供的执行性能。

  虽然这是一个好的设计惯例,通过这种方法建立数据流对网络站点执行效率有较大影响。不管现实操作执行是从asp的包含文件还是Visual Basic COM 零部件。


  考虑下列代码碎片取自WriteHTML函数。 命名数据的参数仅仅是一个数组包含一些需要被格式化成一个表结构的数据(数据从数据库返回, 例如)。

Function WriteHTML( Data )

Dim nRep For nRep = 0 to 99

sHTML = sHTML & VBcrlf _ & "<TR><TD>" & (nRep + 1) & "</TD><TD>" _

& Data( 0, nRep ) & "</TD><TD>" _


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